Atrial fibrillation
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an irregular heart beat, caused by irregular conduction of the ventricles, that generates the heartbeat. rAF is an abbreviation for rapid AF. Pathophysiology Disorganized impulses originating in the roots of...
Group and hold
Group and hold (aka group and screen, G&S, or type and screen) are tests conducted prior to blood transfusion. [faq]What's group and hold? Tests done before a blood transfusion. What's a blood transfusion? Where you get...
Crackle
Crackles (aka crepitations, rales, from French "rale" meaning "rattle") are discontinuous crackling/clicking/rattling noises made by either/both lungs in Pt's with a respiratory disease. Sx Discontinuous, non-musical, and brief Much more common during inspiration than...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN, aka erythroblastosis fetalis) is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus. Sx Jaundice increase within 24 hours of birth → hemolysis causes elevated bilirubin levels, in...
Estrogen deficiency
Estrogen deficiency (aka hypoestrogenism) is lower than normal levels of estrogen (i.e. primary sex hormone in women). In general, lower levels of estrogen may cause differences in teh breasts, genitals,...
Curette
Curette is a surgical instrument designed for scraping or debriding biological tissue or debris in a biopsy, excision or cleaning procedure. It is a small hand tool, often similar in...
Perineal tear
Perineal tear is an unintended laceration of the skin and other soft tissue structures separating the vagina from the anus. Tears vary in severity. [faq]What is a perineal tear? It's where as...
Oligomenorrhea
Oligomenorrhea is infrequent menstruation, occurring at intervals >35 days, thus only permitting 4-9 periods per year. Menstrual periods should have been previously established, before the development of infrequent flow. [faq]Oligo-menorrhea. What...
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein found in the RBC, which helps to transports oxygen throughout the body. 2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-BPG, or 2,3-DPG) is present in all RBC's, binding with greater...
Blood test
Blood tests (aka hematological test) are Ix performed on a blood sample usually extracted from a vein in the arm via needle, or via fingerprink. Serum is another word for blood. Blood panels...
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