Lithotripsy (from Greek "litho" meaning "stone", "tripso" meaning "breaking") is physical destruction of hardened masses, e.g. kidney stones, bezoars, or gallstones.
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which is non-invasive Tx of kidney stones...
Ultrasound is a Dx technique for visualizing soft tissue, including tendons, muscles, joints, vessels, and internal organs, for possible pathology/lesions.
U/S is the use of sound waves with a frequency too...
Carbon dioxide narcosis
Usually, the body relies on CO2 receptors to regulate breathing. Hypoxic drive is where the body uses oxygen chemoreceptors instead.
It occurs in COPD Pt's where there are chronically high CO2...
Pneumothorax (PTx) is an abnormal collection of air/gas in the pleural space (separating lung from the chest wall), that causes an uncoupling of the lung from the chest wall, thus interfering...
Genetic disorder is a problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, that is present from birth (congenital). The most common genetic disorders, ecxluding [[chromosomal abnormalities]] (a sub-type), includes:
Leukonychia is white discoloration of the nail.
Harmless, most commonly caused by minor injuries whilst the nail is growing
Caused by hypoalbuminemia (low albumin), of chronic liver disease. In this instance, there...
Heart attack (aka myocardial infarction) is where blood [and thus oxygen] flow stops to a part of the heart, and heart muscle becomes damaged.
[faq]What is a myocardial infarction, and how...
Narcolepsy is a chornic neurological disorder, involving the loss of the brain's ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles normally.
Experience frequent excessive daytime sleepiness, comparable to how Pt's who don't have narcolepsy...
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a 3rd copy of genes on chromosome 21.
Caused by 3 copies of the genes on chromosome 21, rather than the usual 2. This...
Pt asked to rapidly turn their hand and tap the other (stationary) hand. It tests for impaired ability to perform rapid, alternating movements.
Indicates lesion to either the cerebellum or frontal...