CTG
CTG (cardiotocography, from "cardio" meaning "heartbeat", "toco" meaning "uterine contractions", and "graphy" meaning "recording") is recording of the fetal heartbeat and uterine contractions during pregnancy, typically only in the 3rd...
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, twin oligohydramnios-polyhydramnios sequence) is a complication of disproportionate blood supply, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. It can affect monochrionic multiples (i.e. multiple...
Pap smear
Pap smear (short for Papanicolaou, also known as Cervical smear) is the screening for potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous processes in the cervix (i.e. opening of the uterus or womb), i.e....
Gonorrhea
Gonorrhea (aka the clap, gonococcal infection) is a bacterial STI. Pathophysiology Caused by N. gonorrhoeae Sx In men: Dysuria Penile discharge In women: Can be asymptomatic (50%) Vaginal discharge Pelvic pain Ix PCR Traditionally, Dx with gram stain and culture. However, culture can still be...
Lithium
Lithium salts are mood-stabilizing drugs. Examples include: Lithium carbonate, the most comonly prescribed Lithium citrate, also used in conventional pharmacological Tx Lithium orotate, presented as an alternative Fell out of use in the 1940's when it...
Developmental delay
Developmental delay (aka delayed milestone) is where a child doesn't reach 1 of the milestone stages at the expected age, which can be in one of the 4 developmental domains: However, a wide...
Jugular venous pressure
Jugular venous pressure (JVP) is the indirectly observed pressure, over the venous system, as observed over the internal jugular vein. JVPNE/JVPNR is shorthand for JVP not elevated/raised. [faq]What is JVP. And what...
Bleeding tendency
Bleeding tendency (aka bleeding diathesis, bleeding predisposition, hemorrhagic diathesis) is unusual susceptibility to bleed/hemorrhage. Cause Hypocoagulability, mostly, in turn caused by a coagulopathy (i.e. a defect in the system of coagulation) Thinning of...
Leukonychia
Leukonychia is white discoloration of the nail. [img]leukonychia.jpg[/img] Source: http://www.dermis.net/bilder/CD033/550px/img0063.jpg Causes Harmless, most commonly caused by minor injuries whilst the nail is growing Caused by hypoalbuminemia (low albumin), of chronic liver disease. In this instance, there...
Anticholinergic
Anticholinergics inhibits parasympathetics, by blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine [specifically, its binding to its receptor in neurons]. Parasympathetics are responsible for involuntary movement of smooth muscle present in the GI, urinary tract,...
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