Thoracentesis (aka thoracocentesis, pleural tap) is used to remove fluid/air from the pleural space for Dx or Tx.
Pt sits upright and leaning on the table
Local anesthesia is generally first administered
Medical education is as follows:
University degree in medicine, including MBBS (6 years) and MD (4 years). There is a pre-clinical portion, followed by a clinical portion (final 2 years) during medical...
Focal neurological deficit (aka focal neurologic signs, aka focal CNS signs) are impairments of nerve, spinal cord, or brain function that affects a specific region of the body (e.g. weakness...
Metabolic alkalosis is where the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (pH>7.45). This causes decreased hydrogen ion concentration, causing increased bicarbonate, or alternatively a direct result of...
Drug withdrawal are Sx that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of drugs (both prescription or recreational). In order to experience the Sx of withdrawal, one must have...
Syphilis is a bacterial STD.
Syphilis, is caused by T. pallidum. Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases e.g. syphilis, bejel, pinta and yaws. It has a cytoplasmic and...
Lower limb examination
Lower limb examination assesses the neurological function of the lower limbs. LL is shorthand for Lower limb.
Remember with the mnemonic “The Powerful Romans Conquered Spain”:
REMEMBER to start- Walking:
Assess gait, asking patient...
Flapping tremor is, when the hand is outstretched, and wrist is bent upward, the Pt is unable to actively maintain the position, but instead, tremors with jerky movement, resembling a...
Aortic rupture is rupture/breakage of the aorta (i.e. largest artery in the body).
Tearing pain, located in the abdomen, flank, groin, or back
LOC (loss of consciousness)
Hypotension, from volemic shock
Cyanosis (blue discloration...
Herpes [simplex] is a viral STD.
Herpes is caused by either HSV-1 (usually oral) or HSV-2 (usually genital), although genital HSV-1 infections are increasing, and now cause up to 80% of infections
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and...