Thoracentesis
Thoracentesis (aka thoracocentesis, pleural tap) is used to remove fluid/air from the pleural space for Dx or Tx. Procedure Pt sits upright and leaning on the table Local anesthesia is generally first administered A cannula,...
Medical career
Medical education is as follows: University degree in medicine, including MBBS (6 years) and MD (4 years). There is a pre-clinical portion, followed by a clinical portion (final 2 years) during medical...
Neurological deficit
Focal neurological deficit (aka focal neurologic signs, aka focal CNS signs) are impairments of nerve, spinal cord, or brain function that affects a specific region of the body (e.g. weakness...
Metabolic alkalosis
Metabolic alkalosis is where the pH of tissue is elevated beyond the normal range (pH>7.45). This causes decreased hydrogen ion concentration, causing increased bicarbonate, or alternatively a direct result of...
Drug withdrawal
Drug withdrawal are Sx that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of drugs (both prescription or recreational). In order to experience the Sx of withdrawal, one must have...
Syphilis
Syphilis is a bacterial STD. Pathophysiology Syphilis, is caused by T. pallidum. Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases e.g. syphilis, bejel, pinta and yaws. It has a cytoplasmic and...
Lower limb examination
Lower limb examination assesses the neurological function of the lower limbs. LL is shorthand for Lower limb. Method Remember with the mnemonic “The Powerful Romans Conquered Spain”: REMEMBER to start- Walking: Assess gait, asking patient...
Flapping tremor
Flapping tremor is, when the hand is outstretched, and wrist is bent upward, the Pt is unable to actively maintain the position, but instead, tremors with jerky movement, resembling a...
Aortic rupture
Aortic rupture is rupture/breakage of the aorta (i.e. largest artery in the body). Sx Tearing pain, located in the abdomen, flank, groin, or back LOC (loss of consciousness) Hypotension, from volemic shock Tachycardia Cyanosis (blue discloration...
HSV
Herpes [simplex] is a viral STD. Pathophysiology Herpes is caused by either HSV-1 (usually oral) or HSV-2 (usually genital), although genital HSV-1 infections are increasing, and now cause up to 80% of infections Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and...
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