Definition of "Viral infection"

Last modified: 20 hours



Viral infection (aka viral disease) is when a Pt's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and virions (i.e. infectious virus particles) attach to and enter susceptible cells.

Classification
  • Adenoviridae, including:
    • Adenovirus
  • Herpesviridae, including:
    • Epstein-Barr virus
    • HSV type 1
    • HSV type 2
    • Cytomegalovirus
    • HHV type 8
    • VZV (varicella-zoster virus)
  • Papillomaviridae, including:
    • HPV (human papillomavirus)
  • Polyomaviridae
  • Poxviridae
  • Hepadnaviridae, including:
    • Hepatitis B virus
  • Parvorviridae
  • Astroviridae
  • Caliciviridae
  • Picornaviridae, including:
    • Coxsackievirus
    • Hepatitis A virus
    • Poliovirus
  • Coronaviridae
  • Flaviviridae, including:
    • Hepatitis C virus
  • Togaviridae, including:
    • Rubella virus
  • Hepeviridae
  • Retroviridae, including:
    • HIV
  • Orthomyxoviridae, including:
    • Influenza vius
  • Arenaviridae
  • Bunyaviridae
  • Filoviridae
  • Paramyxoviridae, including:
    • Measles virus
    • Mumps virus
    • Parainfluenza virus
    • RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)
  • Rhabdoviridae, including:
    • Rabies virus
  • Unassigned
  • Reoviridae
Ix
  • Detection of specific antibodies, which binds to the virus and renders it non-infectious. It is created by the adaptive immune system. 2 types of antibodies are important, including IgM which is produced by cells of the immune system for a few weeks (i.e. indicates acute infection), or IgG which is produced indefinetely (i.e. indicates chronic infection)
  • Detection of virus antigens, by:
    • ELISA
    • Immunofluorescence
    • Immunoperoxidase
  • Hemagglutination assay, which uses the process of hemagglutination, where sialic acid receptors on the surface of RBC's bind to the hemagglutinin glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza (and several other viruses), and creates a network, or lattice structure, of interconnected RBC's and virus particles. This prevents them from settling out of suspension
  • Detection of virus encoded DNA and RNA, with PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Nucleic acid hybridization with virus-specific probes detects specific viruses
  • Specialized gene sequencing techniques, which is required in some viruses

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Definition of Viral infection | Autoprac


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