Definition of "Urine"

Last modified: about 1 hour



Urine is a liquid by-product of the body, secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination/micturation, and ecreted through the urethra.

Characteristics
  • Quantity, which is normally 1.4L, ranging from 0.6-2.6L per day
    • Polyuria is >2.5L/day
    • Oliguria is <400mL (2 cups)
    • Anuria is <100mL (1/2 cup)
  • Constituents (see urinalysis)
  • Color, including:
    • Pink, red, or lighter brown urine:
      • Beets, blackberries, or certain food colorings
      • Hemolytic anemia
      • Injury to kidneys or urinary tract
      • Certain medications
      • Poryphyria
      • Urinary tract disorders that cause bleeding
    • Dark yellow/orange urine:
      • Dehydration
      • B complex vitamins or carotene
      • Drugs, e.g. phenazopyridine (Tx UTI's), rifampin, warfarin
      • Recent laxative use
    • Green/blue urine:
      • Artificial colors in foods/drugs
      • Bilirubin
      • Medications, including methylene blue
      • UTI's
  • Odor, as urine usually doesn't have a strong smell. Smelly urine indicates:
    • Dehydration (higher ammonia concentration)
    • Consumption of asparagus
    • Particular medications
    • UTI's (can appear cloudy or bloody)
    • Uncontrolled diabetes (abnormally sweet)
  • Turbidity (cloudy), can indicate a bacterial infection, but can be crystalization of salts, e.g. calcium phosphate
  • pH (see urinalysis)
  • Density (see urinalysis)
  • Possible pathogens in urine, where epithelial cells lining the urethra are colonized by facultatively anaerobic Gram negatives. Although it is thought that urine is sterile before, there is research it is not sterile, even in the bladder

Patient information

You can classify urine?
By color. By odor.

What colors can urine be, and what do they mean?
Reddish. Dark yellow. Or green. So reddish can be certain foods like beets or blackberries, destruction of red blood cells causing them to become low, certain drugs, bleeding in the urinary tract. Dark yellow can mean dehydration, recent laxative use, vitamin B, certain drugs like warfarin.

What odors can urine be, and what do they mean?
If it's smelly, it can mean dehydration, eating asparagus, UTI's. There's also diabetes, which can make urine swet.

See also

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Definition of Urine | Autoprac


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