Definition of "Quinolone"

Last modified: 2 days

Quinolone are synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  • Quinolones and its derivatives have also been isolated from natural sources, e.g. plants, animals, bacteria, and can act as natural antimicrobials or signalling molecules
  • It exerts its antibacterial effect by preventing bacterial DNA from unwinding and duplicating
  • The majority of quinolones are fluoroquinolones, which have a fluorine atom attached to the central ring system, typically at the 6-position or C-7 position

Divided into generations, based on their antibacterial spectrum. The earlier generations are generally more narrow spectrum. Most are named with the -oxacin suffix. It includes:

  • 1st generation, which are the nonfluorinated drugs. They are rarely used today:
    • Cinoxacin
    • Nalidixic acid, which is a carcinogen
    • Oxolinic acid
    • Piromidic acid
    • Pipemidic acid
    • Rosoxacin
  • ​2nd generation:
    • Ciprofloxacin (Enoxin, Cipro)
    • Enoxacin
    • Fleroxacin
    • Lomefloxacin
    • Nadifloxacin
    • Norfloxacin (NOR)
    • Ofloxacin
    • Pefloxacin
    • Rufloxacin
  • 3rd generation, which is different from the 1st and 2nd generation, as it is active against streptococci, including:
    • Balofloxacin
    • Grepafloxacin
    • Levofloxacin (Levaquin)
    • Pazufloxacin
    • Sparfloxacin
    • Temafloxacin
    • Tosufloxacin
  • 4th generation, which act at DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. This dual action slows development of resistance. It includes:
    • Clinafloxacin
    • Gatifloxacin
    • Gemifloxacin
    • Moxifloxacin (Avelox)
    • Sitafloxacin
    • Trovafloxacin
    • Prulifloxacin
Adverse effects
  • Various Rx have been removed from clinical practice due to severe toxicity issues

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Definition of Quinolone | Autoprac

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