Gravidity and parity (G/P/A) are terms relating to pregnancy.
It is the number of times a female has:
Gravidity means having been pregnant, regardless of whether it has been brought to viability (yet alone term), including the current pregnancy:
Gravida refers to a pregnant woman
Nulligravida (nulli) is a woman who has been never pregnant
Primigravida (primi) is a woman who is pregnant for the 1st time or has been pregnant 1 time. Elderly primigravida refers to being primi >=35yo
Multigravida (multi) is a woman who has been pregnant more than 1 time
Parity is carrying the pregnancy to viable gestational age, defined as >20 weeks gestation. Note therefore that G2P1 doesn't necessarily mean that the previous baby passed away. It could mean that the current baby is <20 weeks gestation. Pregnancies consisting of multiples (twins/triplets) are counted as 1 birth for this notation:
Primiparous (aka primipara, primip) is a woman who has given birth once before
Multiparous (aka multip) is a woman who has given 2 or more times before
Grand multipara is a woman who has given birth 3 or more times
Abortus, means lost for any reason, including abortion and miscarriage
Gravidity sounds like gravity. And parity sounds like something to do with interest rates lol . I know abortus probably means abortion, but what does gravidity and parity mean?
Gravidity is the number of times you've been pregnant. Parity is the number of times you've had a pregnancy to an age where the baby is considered "viable".
What age can a baby be considered "viable"?
20 weeks gestation.
Wait... what does gestation mean again ?
Gestational age is time since the woman's last bleed. Once you have conception, you no longer bleed. A woman's last bleed is calculated 2 weeks before conception. Conception is when egg and sperm come together.
The notation G6P4 for example, means 6 pregnancies, 4 carried to viable gestational age (so 2 were preterm).
Being a prolonged nulli is a risk factor for breast cancer, increasing risk by 30%. Risk is reduced by 16% for every 2 births. Elderly primi's have a 40% increased risk compared to those who are primi's <20yo
Increasing parity increases risk for adverse obstetric outcomes, but there may be confounding factors such as being significantly older, more likely to be Indigenous, not having had antenatal care, to have smoked during pregnancy, and having previous C sections
Viable gestation ranges worldwide between 20-24 weeks, and is controversial because it influences the legalities regarding abortion