Definition of "Big Five personality trait"

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Big Five personality traits (aka five factor model) are 5 broad dimensions used by psychologists, to describe the human personality and psyche.


Mnemonic ​OCEAN:

  High trait Low trait
Openness to experience ✓ Involves an appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and a variety of experience. It reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity, and preference for novelty and variety a patient has. It is the extent to which a patient is imaginative or independent, and depicts a preference for a variety fo activities over a strict routine. It can be perceived as unpredictability or lack of focus. They pursue self-actualization by seeking out intense, euphoric experiences In contrast, those with low openness gain fulfillment through perseverance, and are pragmatic and data driven, perceived to be dogmatic and closed minded
Conscientiousness ✓ Tendency to be organized and dependable, show self discipline, act dutifully, aim for achievement, and prefer planned rather than spontaneous behavior. High conscientiousness can be perceived as stubborn and obsessive In contrast, low conscientiousness is flexible and spontaneous, but can be perceived as sloppy and unreliable
Extraversion ✓ Involves energy, positive emotions, surgency, assertiveness, sociability, and tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, and talkativeness. High extraversion is often perceived as attention seeking, and domineering Low extraversion involves a reserved, reflective personality, which can be perceived as aloof or self absorbed
Agreeableness ✓ Tendency to be compassionate and cooperative, rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. It is a measure of one's trusting and helpful nature, and whether a patient is generally well temered or not. High agreeableness can be seen as naive or submissive Low agreeableness are often seen as competitive or challenging, which can be seen as argumentative or untrustworthy
Neuroticism (aka emotional stability) Tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, e.g. anger, anxiety, depression, and vulnerability. It is the degree of emotional stability, and impulse control. Low emotional control is a reactive and excitable personality, but they can be perceived as unstable or insecure ✓ High emotional control is stable and calm personality, but can be seen as uninspiring and unconcerned

✓ = Desirable trait

  • Mental disorders:
    • High neuroticism antedates the development of ALL common mental disorders, including Personality disorders, anxiety, depresion, substance abuse, psychosis, schizophrenia, non-specific mental distress
    • Most common mental disorders exhibit low extraversion
    • Only SUD is linked with low agreeableness
    • No common mental disorders are linked with openness
    • Low conscientiousness is also linked with MDD, dysthymic disorder, GAD, PTSD, panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, specific phobia and SUD. It is also the strongest personality predictor of mortality, and highly correlated with making poor health choices. As such, high conscientious may add as much as 5 years to one's life
  • In an elderly Japanese sample, conscientiousness, extraversion and openness were related to lower risk of mortality
  • Education:
    • Conscientiousnes and agreableness has a positive, and neuroticism has an inverse relationship with all type of learning styles (synthesis analysis, methodical study, fact retention, and elaborative processing). Thus, individuals who possess discipline, determination and curiosity are more likely to engage in the above learning styles. Conscientious students develop focused learning styles and appear ot be more disciplined and achievement-oriented
    • Extraversion and openness are positively related only to elaborative processing
    • GPA and exam performance is predicted by both conscientiousness, and low neuroticism. This is because conscientious students experience fewer study delays
    • Openness is correlated with higher academic achievement
    • Openness predicts utilizing synthesis-analysis and elaborative-processing learning styles
    • In an Israeli high school sample, gifted students had higher openness, and lower neuroticism than those not in the gifted program. Gifted students also reported less anxiety than those not in the gifted program
    • Hope, which is linked with agreeablenes, has a positive effect on psychological wellbeing. Hope is inversely associated with neuroticism
    • Deep process thinking is more conscientious, open, and extraverted, compared with shallow processors. Deep thinkers are better at methodological study (methodological behavior while completing assignments) and synthesis analysis (processing information, forming categories, and organizing them into hierarchies; this is th eonly one of the learning styles that has explained a significant impact on academic performance). In contrast, shallow thinkers prefer fact retention (focus on the actual result instead of understanding the logic behind something) and are better suited for elaborative processing (connecting and applying new ideas to existing knowledge)
  • Work:
    • There is a link btween national innovation and openness to experience and conscientiousness. Those who express these traits have showed leadership and beneficial ideas towards the country of origin
    • Individuals who are considered leaders typically exhibit lower amounts of neurotic traits, maintain higher levels of openness (envisioning success), balanced levels of conscientiousness (well organized), and balanced levels of extraversion (outgoing, but not excessive)
    • Studies have linked professional burnout to neuroticism, and extraversion to enduring positive work experience
    • Low agreeableness (in men) and neuroticism, and high conscientiousness and extraversion, is related to salary
    • Conscientiousness predicts job performance in general
    • Significant predictors of career-advancement goals are extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness
    • Occupational self-efficacy is positively related with conscientiousness, and negatively correlated with neuroticism
    • Openness is positively related to proactivity at the individual and organizational levels, and negatively related to team and organizational proficiency
    • Agreeableness and extraversion is negatively related to individual task proactivity
    • Conscientiousness is positively, and neuroticism is negatively related to all forms of work role performance
  • Romantic relationships:
    • During dating:
      • Self-related relationship quality is positively related to self-reported conscientiousness
      • Self-reported agreeableness is positively related ot others' ratings of relationship quality
      • Partner-reported neuroticism is negatively related to self-reported quality, and positively related to conscientiousness
    • Engaged couples:
      • Self-reported relationship quality is higher in those high in extraversion and conscientiousness
      • Observers rated the relationship quality higher if the participating partner's self-reported extraversion was high
    • Married couples:
      • High self-reported neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness are related to high level sof self-reported relationship quality
      • Partner-reported agreeableness is related to observed relationship quality

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Definition of Big Five personality trait | Autoprac

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